ISSN (online) 2544-1272
SOCIAL TRUST IN SPORT
The subject of this paper has not yet been thoroughly studied by researchers focusing on the social and humanistic aspects of sport. The paper aims to highlight the significance of social trust in the development of sport and it also explores different theoretical approaches to the subject. The analysis that follows is essentially a theoretical overview of the subject, in addition to several empirical references. The analysis mainly employs two theoretical perspectives, those of structural functionalism and social interactionism, as well as several other perspectives, although to a lesser extent. The findings show that an important role in the area of sport is played by a culture of trust. A high level of social trust leads to development and success, whereas a trust deficit, or a culture of distrust, results in stagnation, lethargy, passive attitudes and absence of development.
Key words: social trust, sport, theoretical analysis
Słowa kluczowe: zaufanie społeczne, sport, analiza teoretyczna
The morality of people practicing martial arts and combat sports in comparison with persons not training hand-to-hand fight
Background. The purpose of the study was to analyze the level of acceptance of particular ethics scales of people practicing martial arts and combat sports. Material and methods. The research was conducted in Jastrzębie-Zdrój and Wodzisław Śląski among 134 respondents divided into two groups: practitioners (N = 66) and control group (N = 68). The diagnostic questionnaire method, the questionnaire technique, was used. The Ethics Questionnaire developed by Wojciszke and Baryła (2000) served as the research tool. Results. It was proved that, regardless of gender and group membership, Productivity Ethics was the least accepted and the Autonomy Scale was the most accepted out of all the Ethics Questionnaire variables. It was found that, regardless of their gender, people practicing martial arts and combat sports are characterized with a higher level of faith that is statistically significant as compared to the control group in relation to the Common Good Scale (p < 0.04) and the Dignity Scale (p < 0.03). It was discovered that in comparison to men, women significantly stronger accept all of the ethics codes. Conclusions. The study can contribute to the development of pedagogy, psychology, sociology, ethics. What is more, it can help make the coaches and masters aware how important it is to pass moral values, propagate principles and philosophies, and nurture appropriate group relations among the practitioners, especially young people.
Key words: morality, ethics, martial arts and combat sports
Słowa kluczowe: moralność, etyka, sztuki i sporty walki
The Court of Arbitration for Sport as an example of application of alternative dispute resolution measures in sport law at the international level
The Court of Arbitration in Sport through its nearly 30-year history became a leading forum for resolving sport-related disputes at the international level. A broad spectrum of cases reviewed by CAS arbitrators include doping, remuneration, eligibility and nationality, and even validity of sports and broadcasting contracts, licenses or election of members of international sport federations. The exponential growth in the number of cases show not only the faith that many subjects of international sports law put in the correctness of the CAS awards, but also its position as an universal forum for resolving disputes within the international sports community and its role as a lawmaker in creation of lex sportiva – the common law of international sport.
Key words: The Court of Arbitration for Sport, alternative dispute resolution, arbitration in sports, International Olympic Committee, disputes in sports
Słowa kluczowe: Sportowy Sąd Arbitrażowy w Lozannie, alternatywne metody rozwiązywania sporu, arbitraż sportowy, Międzynarodowy Komitet Olimpijski, spory sportowe
On 26th October 2015, the President of Poland signed The Physiotherapist Profession Act, which regulates the legal status of this profession. It normalizes numerous issues including pursuing the profession of a physiotherapist, educational requirements, professional liability, the functioning of professional self-government, etc. Therefore, we need to figure out if, in the current situation, the physiotherapist profession has the features that allow its recognition as a liberal profession and the profession of public trust. It is all the more important because in the course of the work on the bill of the physiotherapist profession, the opinions on this issue varied.
Key words: physiotherapist profession, liberal profession, profession of public trust, professional self-government
Słowa kluczowe: zawód fizjoterapeuty, wolny zawód, zawód zaufania publicznego, samorząd zawodowy
Background. The significance of communication in the work of physiotherapists is currently under discussion. On the one hand, it is considered as a factor in the quality of therapy in terms of the patient’s satisfaction. On the other hand, its significance is not recognized as an important factor affecting the treatment itself. Undoubtedly, it would be advisable to establish a consensus on this issue. An appropriate communication model tailored to the needs of each patient may prove useful in this respect. However, in order to achieve results, it is necessary to acquire professional knowledge on the principles of medical communication models and the ability to apply them in practice. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating therapeutic values contained in medical models of communication into therapy based on an analysis of empirical research (taking into account the following models: biomedical, holistic, humanistic, linear, interactive and transactional). Material and methods. A humanistic method of analysis according to which the collected material was first analyzed (the essential concepts associated with the title issue were selected, and the research issue appropriate for the chosen subject was established). In the second stage, the analysis was subjected to empirical study (internal and external analysis) and the findings were compared with the assumptions of the medical models of communication. Results. As a result of the analysis, it was confirmed that holistic, humanistic and interactive models can be a useful tool for a physiotherapist in working with a patient (if the specific type of communication is intentionally used for therapeutic purposes). The basic material to be analysed in terms of empirical study was compiled using the employee’s access to the resources of PubMed MEDLINE and the Library of Medicine at the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. Conclusions. With the welfare of the patients in mind, the most appropriate models of communication implemented in the course of therapy are the humanistic, holistic and interactive models.
Key words: motivation, knowledge, competencies
Słowa kluczowe: motywacja, wiedza, kompetencje
Background. The aim of the study was to compare attitudes of children with hearing impairment towards dance lessons with the use of vibrating headphones, i.e. the Audiva High Pitch Training System to their attitudes towards physical education classes (PE) with elements of gymnastics, athletics, volleyball and basketball. Material and methods. The sample included 14 children aged 11.3 ± 1.0 years (min. 9 years, 8 months; max. 13 years, 5 months) with perceptive type of hearing impairment attending educational centers for deaf children in Poznan. The experimental group consisted of 8 female and 6 male pupils. Twice a week the children took part in dance lessons with the application of the Audiva High Pitch Training System – headphones which enable the subject to experience “bone hearing” through vibrations, and twice a week they attended PE classes. In order to measure the pupils attitudes towards PE lessons, the Baumgartner and Jackson Questionnaire was used. The measurements were made by single assessment of every type of PE classes (dance, gymnastics, athletics, volleyball and basketball). Results. Dance lessons with music and vibrating headphones had no higher emotional value for female students with hearing impairment than other types of PE classes. At the same time dance lessons were evaluated by girls as more intense and activating them more than the lessons of gymnastics. For male students dance lessons had lower emotional value than gymnastics, basketball and athletics. Boys also assessed dance lessons as less intense than the lessons of athletics. Conclusions. Obtained results proved that dance lessons had no higher emotional value for hearing-impaired children compared to other PE lessons. However, dance lessons with the use of vibrating headphones the Audiva High Pitch Trainig System may be a way to intensify PE for girls.
Key words: hearing-impaired, physical education, music, vibrations, dance
Słowa kluczowe: uszkodzenie słuchu, wychowanie fizyczne, muzyka, wibracje, taniec
Background. The aim of the study was to identify the interests in physical activity of students attending senior high schools and the organization of physical education in the new core curriculum. The research material consists of the results of students’ physical activity from nine randomly selected senior high schools in Wrocław. Material and methods. In addition, in those randomly selected schools, the professional qualifications of 32 physical education teachers, sports infrastructure and the method of physical education implementation were diagnosed. Results. The study revealed significant differences in the interest of senior high school students. The differences in physical activity forms among students involved gender, age and school they attended and the seasons in which the survey was held. Students showed the greatest interests in swimming, team sports and downhill skiing. The most popular among the girls were swimming, dancing, skating and roller skating, whereas among the boys were team sports, swimming, martial arts and downhill skiing. The study which diagnosed the professional qualifications of PE teachers showed that all of them graduated from a University School of Physical Education, and most of them have been working for over 21 years. Half of the diagnosed qualified teachers have a professional degree. Half of the teachers have more than trainer’s or instructor’s qualifications in one discipline Among the teachers, most people have a trainer’s or instructor’s license to conduct classes in basketball, volleyball, swimming, soccer and downhill skiing. Conclusions. The study on the diagnosis of the ways of implementing PE classes showed that five senior high schools implemented a traditional classroom-lesson system, and in four schools – a mixed system (classes in the classroomlesson system, and activities to be chosen by a student).The study has shown that in more than half of the diagnosed senior high schools in Wroclaw some new opportunities for the organization of physical education are introduced.
Key words: physical education, interests, secondary schools
Słowa kluczowe: wychowanie fizyczne, zainteresowania, szkoła średnia
Introduction. The aim of the research was to clarify the relationship between policemen’s knowledge and their real motor competence and physical fitness that enable them to execute operational tasks. Material and methods. The study was conducted on a group of 52 out of 224 officers of the Intelligence Department and the Municipal Police Intervention in Wroclaw in 2011. It analyzed the responses to the questionnaire developed by the authors and the internal police reports on the results of the physical competence test. Results and conclusions. Analysis of the test results obtained by officers in periodic performance testing indicates a low level of motor skill competence. The mean overall score of all trials is 3.41 for the whole sample. This represents only 56% of the lower limit of the maximum level of efficiency, but in practice, considering the nature of any potential operational activities taken, in many individual cases it seems to be insufficient. The profile of the tested police officers’ efficiency is rather strength-oriented with a clear trunk muscle strength dominance (4.25). Definitely, a weaker motor competence of all subjects is was the one identified on the basis of running tests. Strength test results can be considered quite as bad (2.85). The state of knowledge regarding the nature and manner of motor competence development is low and insufficient to affect self-improvement in the tested officers’ fitness. The respondents generally do not take advantage of the opportunity to improve their motor competence in specialized activities carried out by trained staff. A low level of health awareness of the policemen can also result in a low motor competence condition. The age of officers and their level of education slightly differentiates the results and do not give the grounds to a clear indication of dependence.
Key words: police officers, motor competence, police training, knowledge, health behaviors
Słowa kluczowe: funkcjonariusze policji, kompetencje motoryczne, szkolenie policji, wiedza, zachowania zdrowotne
Background. Backpacking is a relatively new way of travelling (dates back to the 1990s). Therefore academic interest in backpacker tourism has grown since the beginning of the 21st century. In Australia the sector dedicated to the needs and expectations of one of the Australian tourism pillars, i.e. backpacking, operates very effectively. Among the available proposals there are mainly offers made by hostels, travel agencies, clubs or recreation places. In Poland, however, what is advertised are activities that are offered, e.g. hiking, skiing, agrotourism or culture-oriented tourism and particular tourism products, e.g. theme trails dedicated to e.g. backpackers. Folders, brochures and leaflets remain the most frequent means of advertising. The aim of the article is to evaluate the advertising materials affecting the induction of response desired by the target audience – backpackers. Material and methods. Expert evaluation method was used to analyze the advertising materials available in the years 2014–2015. Results and conclusion. The analysis and evaluation of selected publications allowed observing the most important similarities and differences in selection methods and the level of application of crucial elements by Australian and Polish publishers.
Key words: advertising materials, evaluation by an expert
Słowa kluczowe: wydawnictwa reklamowe, ocena metodą ekspercką
PRISON SERVICE OFFICERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS TRAINING AND MEASUREMENT OF PHYSICAL FITNESS
Background. In 2014 three co-authors of this article, at the prison authorities’ order, prepared a draft amendment of the physical fitness test for Prison Service officers. After the presentation of several amendments there has been noticed a very spontaneous and emotional reaction of the officers to the concept of Cooper’s test inclusion to the revised test. This inspired the authors to examine prison officers’ attitudes towards the concept of exposing them to a mandatory endurance test. Material and methods. 91 prison officers took part in a diagnostics survey with the use of a questionnaire developed by the authors. Results. Subjects mostly practice strength training although in their opinion the most beneficial to health is doing endurance training. The respondents do not have enough knowledge on training methods of building endurance. Almost half of the respondents indicate a negative attitude of officers to the incorporation of obligatory endurance trial to physical fitness test. Conclusions. Several educational as well as motivational actions need to be taken in order to raise their skills related to planning and practicing physical activity. Their performance is especially important taking into consideration health and the strengthening of professionally useful motor potential.
Background. The main objective of the study was to determine the hierarchy of significance of selected criteria of goal scoring skills which influenced the success of play of selected soccer teams in one of the qualification groups of the UEFA European U-21 Championship. Another objective was to assess the goal scoring skills of the Poland national U-21 team compared to their direct rivals. Material and methods. Analysis of 5 national teams constituting Group 7 in the qualifying tournament was based on the data available on the website uefa.com/under21. The analysed variables included such criteria as general shooting activity, the number of successful shots and the success rate of all shots. In the comparison of the teams one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Tukey’s multiple comparison test were applied. Results and conclusions. The analysis indicated that the shooting activity influenced the effectiveness of play of the soccer teams only in selected cases and that it influenced the effectiveness and success rate in the case of teams extremely different in terms of their sports level. The Poland U-21 team mostly did not differ from their rivals in terms of goal scoring skills.
Key words: soccer, European U-21 Championship, goal scoring skills
Słowa kluczowe: piłka nożna, młodzieżowe mistrzostwa Europy, sprawność strzelecka
Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego
al. Ignacego Jana Paderewskiego 35