ISSN (online) 2544-1272
The way of truth. Towards the philosophy of self-creation
Background. How does ‘the way of truth’ manifest itself and how does it relate to personal self-creation? What is the normative pattern? The author limits his discussion of this question to the three human figure roads – a knight, priest, and scientist. Method. The leading method applied is literature content analysis. Considerations are not limited to the selected concepts of Cassirer and Fromm, Kuczyński and Szmyd. The relations between the truth and good result here mainly in the deliberately accented personalistic approach. Results. The specifics of the three noble ways of truth are discussed. It was found that in each case aprecondition for success (to achieve) is faithfulness to the truth. As an illustration, examples of specific people – warriors of truth – are presented. Conclusion. All creation and self-creation should be built on truth (the Truth) as a groundwork for the creation of good.
Key words: anthropology, philosophy of martial arts, creator, warrior of truth
Słowa kluczowe: antropologia, filozofia sztuk walki, twórca, wojownik prawdy
The role of movement in elderly people’s lives and related activities for residents of the West Pomeranian province
Background. An increase in the percentage of elderly people in the world population causes the necessity to emphasize the problem of adequate preparation to senility. Among the suggested activities, there is raising the level of knowledge about the importance of movement in a healthy lifestyle. Physical activity classes for elderly people offered by recreational centres, fitness clubs, and third age universities seem to be really helpful in solving that problem. Material and methods. The research was performed among 486 seniors. The applied methods were the diagnostic questionnaire, document analysis, and interview. Results and conclusions. Third age universities offer the widest possibilities to practise physical exercise for seniors. There are also regular sports events for elderly people organized in the West Pomeranian province. The examined seniors declared that physical activity let them improve their quality of life and become less dependent on others.
Key words: physical activity, elderly people, lifestyle
Słowa kluczowe: aktywność ruchowa, ludzie starsi, styl życia
Self-esteem and assertiveness – psychosocial competences of future physical culture teachers
Background. Firm self-esteem and the ability of assertive behaviour are essential teachers’ competences. They enable to establish right relations with pupils, and thus raise the efficiency of educational interactions. The aim of the study was to diagnose assertiveness and self-esteem among students who associate their future with the teacher profession against those who plan to take a different kind of job, and to explain the relation between the tested traits. Material and methods. The study involved 388 students from two Wrocław universities. Three tools were applied: the Polish adaptation of Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, a questionnaire to determine the levels of assertiveness (‘I and others’ scale by Majewicz), and a questionnaire by Romanowska-Tołłoczko. Results. The study revealed a diversity in assertiveness and self-esteem levels in students. The future teachers represented an average level of assertiveness, and, in respect to women, an average level of self-esteem. Major self-esteem differences were observed in men; future physical culture teachers had much higher self-esteem than future teachers of other subjects. Conclusions. There is a positive correlation between self-esteem and assertiveness levels, which indicates the tendency of interdependence in the tested traits.
Key words: assertiveness, self-esteem, teacher, professional predispositions, interpersonal competences
Słowa kluczowe: asertywność, samoocena, nauczyciel, predyspozycje zawodowe, kompetencje interpersonalne
Self-efficacy and locus of control as determinants of stress management style in athletes and physical education students
Background. Self-efficacy is an individual’s belief in their skills and abilities to act in order to reach a chosen goal, irrespective of any obstacles. The motivation to act increases with the rise of self-efficacy. This is connected with sports results achieved by sportsmen. The authors emphasized that the choice of a coping strategy in difficult situations depended on many factors, e.g. personality traits, age, gender, or current physical and mental health. The objective of the paper was to analyse the influence of self-efficacy and locus of control on the choice made by players in terms of their coping strategy in difficult situations. Material and methods. A group of 12 players and 51 students was investigated. The measurement tools were: Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Men at Work questionnaire, and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. Results and conclusions. The predominant coping strategy among the subjects was the task-oriented style. In both groups, a statistically significant correlation was achieved between self-efficacy and the task-oriented style. A moderate relationship between locus of control and self-efficacy was observed among players.
Key words: sportsmen, self-efficacy, stress, control
Słowa kluczowe: sportowcy, poczucie własnej skuteczności, stres, kontrola
Ski jumping in the Beskid Mountains
The article presents the historical overview of the Polish ski jumping hills. The analysis particularly concerned the role of the objects from the Beskid Mountains area of Bielsko-Biała and Cieszyn, including the hills in Bystra and Szczyrk-Skalite, which now significantly represent the importance of the Beskid Mountains as a ski jumping centre in Poland. The paper presents the quality of ski jumping facilities in Bystra, too. It reminds a long way that was passed by local activists to rebuild the skiing tradition in the village, and also shows the every-day sport reality. There is still a dilemma between trying to have another, third hill and cooperating with the neighbours. The last part of the article contains an analysis of the dynamic properties of the ski jumping hills in Bystra and Szczyrk. This information may be useful for trainers of young sportsmen.
Key words: ski jumping, Bystra, Szczyrk-Skalite, ski jumping hill
Słowa kluczowe: skoki narciarskie, Bystra, Szczyrk-Skalite, skocznia narciarska
Teaching in snow sports: professional sport, education, and recreation
Human activity in the field of snow sports is a set of complex psychomotor functions, fitting in an interactive model of variables: ‘organism – world’. The study was an attempt to determine the specific situational dimensions and subjective properties determining the effectiveness of the teaching/learning process in professional, educational (school) and recreational forms of snow sports. Depending on the level of training, important differences in the process for teachers, trainers, and instructors were indicated. Also, some selected psychosocial teaching rules and an efficiency model for snow sports instructor work was discussed.
Key words: snow sports, teaching, psychosocial rules, instructor work efficiency
Słowa kluczowe: sporty śnieżne, nauczanie, zasady psychospołeczne, efektywność pracy instruktora
Sports and tourist behaviour of mountain runners
Background. Mountain running is a discipline that has developed dynamically and therefore requires more research by scientists and practitioners. In this context, the aim of the authors of the study was to define the social and demographic characteristics of a mountain runner, as well as to determine their sports and tourist behaviour. Material and methods. The research was performed in 2014 and 2015 among 156 participants of mountain running events. The data were collected with a survey questionnaire developed by the authors of the research. Results and conclusions. The results showed that the dominant group of mountain runners were men of the age of 31–40 years with running experience gathered during flat terrain runs. Most often the responders participated in big running events that usually lasted 2–3 days during weekends. The season of the year when the running events are organised is of no importance to the participants. The most vital element that makes people enter this discipline is bound with the natural beauty of the mountain environment. According to the survey participants, the factors that cause less frequent practise of mountain running include lack of free time and a too big distance from the place of living to the running events.
Key words: mountain activity, mountain runs, mountain tourist behaviour
Słowa kluczowe: aktywność górska, biegi górskie, górskie zachowania turystyczne
The place of tourism in the development strategies of the Sudetes municipalities
Background. The purpose of the paper was to evaluate the significance of tourism in the development strategies of municipalities located in the Sudetes. Material and methods. The study involved 44 Sudetes municipalities. The officially accepted strategies of municipality development and tourism development were analysed in the context of strategic and operational objectives, vision of the municipality and its mission, SWOT analysis, and key tasks. The authors collated the results with the development of the tourist function. Results and conclusions. The role of tourism is mentioned in most of the analysed documents owing to the attractive natural and cultural environment. Up to 89% of the studied municipalities involved tourism in SWOT analyses and 73% of them presented tourist attractions widely in their development strategies. However, the municipalities rarely employ their values to create advanced tourist products; these are included only in 25% of the documents. Unfortunately, they can be mostly classified as potential ones. The municipalities with a downward trend of tourism function show the smallest interest in tourism development. Others present different approaches to it.
Key words: the Sudetes, municipality, development strategy, tourist function
Słowa kluczowe: Sudety, gmina, strategia rozwoju, funkcja turystyczna
Comparison of the Polish, Czech, and Slovakian ski resorts with the method of hedonic prices
Background. The Hedonic Price Method helps develop a hierarchy of ski resorts, where the criterion is the ratio of the ski pass price to the quality of the service. Using a properly selected research sample and the nonlinear estimation method, one can estimate the impact of ski resorts attributes on ski pass prices. The estimated ski pass prices allow to compare the effectiveness of ski resorts in different countries. Material and methods. Data for the analysis, relating to the ski season of 2015/2016, were attributes of 245 ski resorts in Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia. The quality index was constructed with the method of hedonic prices and nonlinear least squares estimation. Results. The average quality of Polish ski resorts is significantly higher than that of Czech and Slovakian ones. However, prices in the Polish resorts are highest in relation to the offered quality. In Poland, there are the largest number of ski resorts characterized by excessive (in relation to the offered quality) prices of ski passes. Conclusions. The features that most strongly affect the price of ski passes in Polish, Czech, and Slovakian ski resorts are: the proportion of fast and modern detachable chairlifts, the upper station altitude, and the ski season duration.
Key words: ski pass prices, the Sudeten, the Carpathians, ski resorts, competitiveness
Słowa kluczowe: ceny skipassów, Sudety, Karpaty, stacje narciarskie, konkurencyjność
The use of smartphones with a GPS transmitter to inventory cycling routes in the Western Sudeten
Background. The first smartphones appeared in the late 1990s, and recently their popularity has significantly increased. The number of holders of these mobile devices continues to grow, and thus there are more possibilities to utilise smartphones in everyday life. With the usage of a built-in GPS and appropriate applications, it is possible to employ smartphones in field work. The aim of the paper is to present a new method of inventorying cycle routes. Material and methods. In particular, the authors tried to inventory a cycling route in the area of Szklarska Poręba and Michałowice with the use of a mobile Android application called Runkeeper. The newly acquired field data were confronted with the geographic data portal Geocontext. Results and conclusions. It turned out that the smartphone type mobile device perfectly suited to inventorying cycling routes. In addition, it was possible to obtain accurate data referring to the lay of the land.
Key words: physical recreation, cycling routes inventory, mobile technology, the Western Sudeten
Słowa kluczowe: rekreacja ruchowa, inwentaryzacja tras rowerowych, technologia mobilna, Sudety Zachodnie
Opportunities for practicing different forms of active tourism in the Ukrainian Carpathians
Background. Ukrainian Carpathians cover 4% of the Ukraine area and 10.3% of the total area of the Carpathians. The region is among those most often visited by tourists in Ukraine. The values of this part of the Carpathians constitute a natural impulse to the development of tourism in the country. The paper presents the possibilities to practice active tourism in the Ukrainian Carpathians. The main aim is to discover the tourist and recreational infrastructure of the Carpathians, as well as identifying opportunities and problems bound with practicing various forms of active tourism in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Material and methods. The material was collected through field research combined with direct observation and diagnostic polls in a group of experts from the tourist industry in Ukraine. Analysis of source materials, maps, and guides was also performed. Conclusion. The tourist and recreational potential of the Ukrainian Carpathians is very high, allowing for significant opportunities for active tourism development. There are, however, substantial obstacles, bound with lack of sufficient infrastructure and consistent support by the authorities. The authors indicated tasks to be solved in order to improve the condition of tourist industry.
Key words: active tourism, tourist infrastructure, Ukrainian Carpathians
Słowa kluczowe: turystyka aktywna, infrastruktura turystyczna, ukraińskie Karpaty
Accommodation infrastructure and tourist traffic in valuable natural areas on the example of mountain national parks in Spain: present state and perspectives of development
Background. Valuable natural areas are significant tourist destinations. However, a large number of tourists is a threat to sensitive mountain ecosystems. Thus the Spain pay particular attention to sustainable development, especially where nature can be mostly endangered. The article is an attempt to assess the state of selected elements of tourism in mountain national parks of Spain and the perspectives of their development. Material and methods. The main method is an analysis of statistical data referring to the accommodation infrastructure of rural tourism, especially of protected mountain areas, as well as data concerning tourist traffic. Results. The most important forms of tourism practiced in natural areas are presented; the importance of rural and nature tourism is emphasized in the context of sustainable development. The main issue that influences the development is accommodation infrastructure. Taking into account the perspectives of tourism development in the mountainous national parks, the need to create an offer more open to foreign tourists was underscored. Among the threats, the problem of unifying accommodation units operating in the rural environment was pointed. The solution demands changing legal situation and the competences of the Spanish autonomic regions, which seems to be a difficult task. Conclusions. Tourism in the mountain national parks of Spain functions properly based on the tourist attractions, and the development perspectives are good provided that the question of systematizing accommodation unit types is solved, and efforts to attract foreign tourists are undertaken.
Key words: rural tourism, nature tourism, mountain national parks, Spain, tourist traffic
Słowa kluczowe: turystyka wiejska, turystyka przyrodnicza, górskie parki narodowe, Hiszpania, ruch turystyczny
Bad Hindelang-Oberjoch as an Alpine centre of winter sports tourism in the opinion of tourists
Background. The aim of the study is to show the development of winter sports tourism in Bad Hindelang-Oberjoch as one of the most important tourism centres in Germany. Another aim is to present the possibilities, forms, and motives of tourists’ sports activity in Bad Hindelang-Oberjoch. Material and methods. A special questionnaire was prepared and applied by the author to examine certain aspects of winter sports tourism among respondents (a pilot survey study). In addition, informative materials of the Bavarian Statistical Office in Munich were used, as well as data from the official website presenting Bad Hindelang and its tourism. The research was conducted in February and March of 2015 among 209 adult tourists in Bad Hindelang. Results and conclusions. The own research results show that the majority of respondents are very active in winter sports. In their opinion, Bad Hindelang-Oberjoch offers good conditions to practice sport.
Key words: winter sports tourism, Alpine centre, Bad Hindelang-Oberjoch
Słowa kluczowe: zimowa turystyka sportowa, ośrodek alpejski, Bad Hindelang-Oberjoch
Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego
al. Ignacego Jana Paderewskiego 35