ISSN (online) 2544-1272
Socio-demographic conditions of patients with cardiovascular diseases
Background. Knowledge of obstacles in physical activity might be helpful in the treatment and prevention of recurrence of the cardiac diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the level of kinesiophobia and sociodemographic determinants in patients with cardiovascular diseases living in two different regions of Poland. Material and methods. The study involved 48 patients (mean age 64.58 ± 11.32 years) divided into two subgroups: 22 patients living in the province of Warmia and Mazury (I) and 26 patients living in the province of Silesia (II). The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using a Polish version of Kinesiophobia Causes Scale [KCS] questionnaire and sociodemographic factors were measured using the questionnaire developed by authors. Results. The mean values of kinesiophobia was: in group I: 38.11 ± 11.68, in group II: 48.62 ± 9.85. In group I there was a positive correlation between age and individual need of stimulation, and between male sex and power of biological drive. In group II there was a strong negative correlation between age and psychological domain, [KCS] and power of biological drive, and also between female sex and energy resources. Conclusions. Patients living in the different demographical regions of Poland are highly differentiated in terms of kinesiophobia risk factors and their sociodemographic determinants.
Key words: kinesiophobia, fear of movement, hypokinesia, cardiovascular diseases, cardiac rehabilitation
Słowa kluczowe: kinezjofobia, lęk przed ruchem, hipokinezja, schorzenia układu sercowo-naczyniowego, rehabilitacja kardiologiczna
Past sports participation and current physical fitness in men over 50 years
Background. The literature on the determinants of health in older adults and the elderly shows a paucity of current research on the long-term effects (positive and negative) of participation in professional sports in youth. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between early involvement in professional sports and late-age physical fitness. Material and methods. A sample of 48 men over 50 years was recruited, of which 23 were former professional athletes and 25 formed a control group with no history of involvement in sports in youth. Anthropometric and physical fitness measures were collected and basic descriptive statistics were calculated. Data were analyzed with Statistica 9.1 software using Student’s t test for independent samples. Results. Intergroup differences were observed in body fat distribution. In addition, the former athletes exhibited lower waist and hip girths. Conclusions. The lack of statistically significant differences in fitness levels demonstrates that past participation in sports does not guarantee improved health in later life. Additional research is needed involving larger sample sizes and controlling for lifestyle behaviors and quality of life markers.
Key words: health, physical fitness, past sports participation, elderly
Słowa kluczowe: zdrowie, sprawność fizyczna, przeszłość sportowa, osoby dorosłe
Physical culture of Polish minority in East Prussia
Background. Due to Friedrich Ludwig Jahn’s gymnastic movement founded in 1811, physical culture in Germany, including East Prussia was widely promoted. Numerous sports fields popularized the values of physical activity among young people. Many other sports disciplines later emerged from the gymnastic movement. Material and methods. The research questions concerned the processes of development of physical culture in Warmia and Mazury in the time of East Prussia and the importance of the remaining sports facilities built by the German population for the development of the sports movement after World War II when the area had become Polish territory. Conclusions. Due to the research results, it is possible to conclude that the sporting traditions of Warmia and Mazury – with the support of few Warmians, Mazurians and a handful of German ancestry citizens – were continued mainly by Polish settlers and repatriates after the end of military actions. There were only the defunct sports facilities that survived the war.
Key words: East Prussia, physical culture, Polish minority
Słowa kluczowe: Prusy Wschodnie, kultura fizyczna, mniejszość polska
A brief history and principles of the organizational management of The World Games
Background. The article is an introduction to the issues related to the World Games – non-Olympic sports. Inspiration to write this article was the future role of Wroclaw – the host city of the World Games in 2017. The aim of the article was to present the history and principles of non-Olympic sports of the Games, and the popularization and knowledge expansion of topics related to the event. Material and methods. The research material includes documents of the World Olympic Sports – The World Games and the International Association of The World Games (IWGA). Results and conclusions. The World Games are a great event, connecting more and more International Sports Federations, Athletes and Spectators. The World Games are a chance to show niche and new disciplines that may be included in the Olympic program in future. It is also a great sporting event, where the spectators can experience successes and failures of their favorite athletes, cheer for them, and for a while forget the obligations of everyday life and surrender to the magic of sport.
Key words: The World Games, Non-Olympic Sports, Wrocław, International World Games Association
Słowa kluczowe: The World Games, światowe igrzyska sportowe, Wrocław, International World Games Association
Social media potential for tourist activity promotion
Though the game-like mechanism has been applied in tourism for decades, tourism attractions hardly deal with the competition of computer games. The aim of this article is to present the application of the gamification mechanism and social media tools in the promotion of tourist activity and tourist regions. Mobile devices enable teens to combine playing and travelling. The development of mobile applications, integrating social gaming and locationbased technology, has led to the growing interest in location-based social network marketing, particularly in tourism and hospitality. The new mobile application PLAY MAZOVIA! is thus discussed in order to present its ability to promote tourist activity among teenagers, as well as its potential to manage the flow of tourists and to promote tourist attractions.
Key words: gamification, tourism promotion, mobile applications, social marketing, destination marketing
Słowa kluczowe: grywalizacja, promocja turystyki, aplikacje mobilne, marketing społeczny, marketing obszarów recepcji turystycznej
Development of mining areas for tourism and recreation on the example of Tarnobrzeg lake
Tarnobrzeg is a city that was perceived through the prism of mining and processing of sulphur for decades. Currently, it is very often described as an attractive tourist place. The change came in July 2010, together with opening the lake created on the grounds of a former mine workings of sulphur in Machów. The objective of the study is to present the aquatic direction of remediation concerning the degraded area of the after-exploitative sulphur mine in Machów, as well as the conditions of utilisation and development of recreational and tourist values in the newly created reservoir. The remediation performed in the region of the former sulphur workings was an innovative project, and the newly created body of water forms a significant element of landscape, contributing to the natural restoration of degraded areas. In the study, the conditions of area development around Tarnobrzeg Lake were presented on the basis of all-terrain research carried out in September 2014 and May 2015. The founding of the body of water in Tarnobrzeg created possibilities of widespread tourism and recreation development, as well as contributed to the economic development concerning the extension of a broad zone of service related to tourism and recreation. The infrastructure around the lake is regularly enriched with new facilities.
Key words: remediation, utilisation, recreation, Tarnobrzeg Lake
Słowa kluczowe: rekultywacja, zagospodarowanie, rekreacja, Jezioro Tarnobrzeskie
Tourist offer individualisation as a consequence of consumer and tourist trends
Consumers’ expectations and needs concerning tourist travelling are to a considerable degree shaped by the trends dominating in the given period. Contemporarily, sustainable development remains the most significant developmental megatrend; it refers to all aspects of socio-economic systems operating, including tourism. Apart from the trends identifying tourist phenomena, it is the progressing process of individualisation (one of the consumer magatrends) that exerts an exceptionally strong influence on the decisions concerning the level of tourist offer personalisation; the process is additionally intensified by the trend of hyper-personalisation. The trends determine the necessity to adjust the tourist offer to the individual needs and expectations of potential tourists. This refers not only to individual tourists, but to mass tourism as well. In the case of individual tourism, offer personalisation has now assumed a new dimension, which consists in basing the travel on the analysis of the customer’s personality and taste. In mass tourism, where there is, by definition, less space for offer individualisation, more and more possibilities of travel personalisation are emerging, and prognoses indicate that profiling and personalising offers for mass tourism participants will also be indispensable in the future.
Key words: tourist offer, tourist trends, consumer behaviour
Słowa kluczowe: oferta turystyczna, trendy turystyczne, zachowania konsumentów
The promotion of the sommelier profession on the job market in Poland
The profession of the sommelier is not popular in the Polish hospitality industry. In most restaurants, this position does not exist. Only in a few, best restaurants this kind of workplace is created. However, forecasts for wine consumption in the Polish society suggest that the profession of sommelier will continue to develop constantly. So far, customers have not expected advice on wines because they do not know that they could receive such help. This does not mean, however, that there is no promotion area for the sommelier profession on the national job market. Since 2001, the Association of Polish Sommeliers has been operating, which undertakes a number of actions in the field. The main aim of the article is to present the activities of the Association with reference to promoting the sommelier profession on the job market in Poland, and to evaluate their effectiveness. The paper covers the theoretical aspects of profession promotion, the legislative conditions of the sommelier profession in Poland, and the characteristics
of the activities of the Association of Polish Sommeliers for promoting the sommelier profession.
Key words: promotion, profession, sommelier
Słowa kluczowe: promocja, zawód, sommelier
Mobile applications as an innovative source of tourist information for students
Background. The dissemination of mobile devices has created new opportunities for communication, work or reaching the client. The fight for the client takes place not only on the basis of the traditional media and websites, but also through sharing a variety of mobile applications. The aim of the research was the analysis of selected web applications and the evaluation of their functionality for innovative sources of tourist information for students. Material and methods. The research was carried out in the years 2012–2014 among 268 students of different colleges in Poznan. The research tool was a questionnaire survey, consisting of two parts. The first part concerned Internet-based technologies, while the other was dedicated to mobile applications used in tourism. Results and conclusions. The increase of the number of mobile device users encourages the creation of various applications used in tourism, which are an innovative source of information. The research shows that, according to the respondents, the use of mobile applications can result in an increase in tourism demand, regional development, as well as safety and comfort.
Key words: mobile applications, source of information
Słowa kluczowe: aplikacje mobilne, źródła informacji
Innovation in the tourist industry: features and search areas
The article refers to theoretical considerations on innovation in tourism. Innovations are illustrated with examples of specific solutions applied. The aim is to review the contemporary approaches to innovation in tourism, and to indicate diverse areas of innovative solutions. The article results from the author’s scientific reflection based on literature studies, discussions and participant observation. The author presents different approaches to innovation in tourism, as well as points at tourist areas with various capacities to implement innovations. The article contains a thesis about the priority role of consumers’ tourist needs in the search for innovation. The author acknowledges the key role of technology in creating innovation in tourism, and also shows the characteristics of e-tourism, especially in the context of the new generation marketing, based on the Internet, new applications and mobile devices.
Key words: innovation, tourist industry, tourist innovation
Słowa kluczowe: innowacje, turystyka, innowacje turystyczne
Social media in the promotional activities of national tourism organizations
These days, social media are commonly known and used by numerous social groups. For many people, they constitute an indispensable element of the lifestyle. It is a new tendency, with a great developmental potential. Until recently, social media were understood solely as a complex of mechanisms that serve the purpose of communication between users. However, it appeared that various entities (e.g. firms, public institutions etc.) whose marketing departments present their offers and create their positive images with the use of social media became interested in this type of communication. National tourism organizations (NTO) can certainly be included in the group of institutions employing social media in their promotional activities. For many of them, this is a key instrument of promotion applied in promotional campaigns. The main purpose of the article is to analyse the use of social media in the promotional activities undertaken by selected European NTOs. In the study, a research thesis was put forward that social media constituted an essential element of the promotional campaigns realized by NTOs, which allowed them to acquire new groups of recipients: those who until recently were impossible or difficult to reach.
Key words: social media, promotion, national tourism organization, promotional campaign
Słowa kluczowe: media społecznościowe, promocja, narodowa organizacja turystyczna, kampania promocyjna
The advantages of events in the Silesian province post-industrial cities for tourism development
Events organized in cities are perceived as an important stimulus of tourism development. This refers especially to post-industrial cities, having problems with, among others, a negative image, which hinders them from staying competitive in the market. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the level to which selected post-industrial cities located in Southern Poland use events to support their development in the field of tourism. The author made a literature review to show the functions that cultural, sports, and business events can fulfil in the cities they are organized in. What is more, ways of measuring the impact of the events on achieving the aims included in the cities development strategies were indicated. The development strategies of post-industrial cities were analysed to draw conclusions concerning the aim of the article.
Key words: events, post-industrial cities, tourism
Słowa kluczowe: wydarzenia, miasta poprzemysłowe, turystyka
The use of the Internet in tourism on the example of destination management organizations’ activities aimed at models in e-business
The present article covers one of the elements of the use of the Internet in the activities pursued by European destination management organizations (DMOs), namely an implementation of business to business (B2B) models and business to customer (B2C) models. The paper presents the results of research carried out among 184 national and regional DMOs. The main objective was to examine the interest of the organizations in the implementation of both models, thus showing the percentage of DMOs applying these solutions. As demonstrated based on the organizations analysed, the issue is quite common, and it is undertaken by the majority of the entities studied. Among the objectives of the article there was also an attempt to examine differences between DMOs that represent two European regions, i.e. Western Europe and Central-Eastern Europe. The analysis of this question is preceded by theoretical deliberations with reference to understanding DMOs and the use of the Internet in the activities pursued by these organizations.
Key words: destination management organizations, business to business model, business to customer model
Słowa kluczowe: organizacje zarządzające obszarami recepcji turystycznej, model business to business, model business to customer
Tourist attractiveness of Polish reception areas on Facebook
The article concerns the problems of communicating tourist attractiveness of Polish regions on Facebook. The author analysed the trends observable on the Facebook fanpages of selected Polish regions. The applied research tool was desk research, with penetrating secondary data compiled by the Sotrender research company and presented in the Fanpage Trends report. The discussion allowed to identify the biggest fanpages dedicated to Polish regions. The analysis of the secondary data referred to the first quarter of 2015.
Key words: marketing communication, tourist attractiveness of a region, social media, social networking sites, Facebook
Słowa kluczowe: komunikowanie marketingowe, atrakcyjność turystyczna regionu, media społecznościowe, serwisy społecznościowe, Facebook
Local government unit promotion policy in creating the image of the regional tourism product (on the example of the West Pomeranian province)
In the contemporary market conditions, creating the tourism product image requires conducting proper promotion policy, including the selection of appropriate instruments. This process is noticeable in the context of the strategic activities of major cities, provinces, or countries. Promotion policy in creating the image of the tourism product should also be applied at the local level: not only in relation to large cities (municipalities) or counties but also with rural and urban-rural entities. The specificity, complexity, and often ambiguous identity of the entities have made creating the image of the tourism product in municipalities less popular. The purpose of the article is to present the essence, as well as the benefits of the promotion policy in creating the image of the regional tourism product on the basis of a research performed in the West Pomeranian province municipalities.
Key words: promotion policy, regional tourism product, image, municipality
Słowa kluczowe: polityka promocji, obszarowy produkt turystyczny, wizerunek, gmina
Innovations in tourist enterprises in the opinion of customers (on the example of the Wieliczka Salt Mine)
Background. A precondition of the existence of contemporary enterprises is a constant pursuit of new, innovative solutions. The most frequently encountered innovations in tourism are marketing and product ones, implemented by different tourism supply entities, including those called tourist attractions. Material and methods. The paper verifies the thesis that innovation perception is differentiated by socio-demographic traits of tourists, particularly age. Mann–Whitney U, Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA by ranks, and homogeneity Pearson 2 tests were applied. Results. The results of a survey conducted in the Wieliczka Salt Mine in 2015 became the empirical basis. The respondents positively assessed the innovations implemented by the Salt Mine. New solutions were also considered a motive of visiting the Mine. Admission tickets are available in ticket offices and on-line. However, the latter is preferred mainly by the youth. Conclusions. Tourism supply entities should pay special attention to the Net generation population when designing and implementing innovative solutions.
Key words: product innovations, innovation activities, tourism, enterprise, Wieliczka Salt Mine
Słowa kluczowe: innowacje produktowe, działalność innowacyjna, turystyka, przedsiębiorstwo, Kopalnia Soli w Wieliczce
Active sport tourism in tourism and recreation course curriculum in the Academy of Physical Education in Katowice
Background. English language literature on tourism perceives active sport tourism, event sport tourism and nostalgia sport tourism as three forms of sport tourism. The primary aim of active sport tourism is travelling to participate in different sport activities, i.e. to be physically active. Active sport tourism is further divided into qualified, extreme and adventure tourism. Active sport tourism can be practiced in different environments, i.e. on land or water, as well as in the air, in summer and winter, and in the form of one-day, weekend- or multi-day trips. The paper presents the place of active sport tourism in the tourism and recreation course curriculum in the Academy of Physical Education in Katowice. Material and methods. The source of the research was documentation gathered in the Archives of the Academy of Physical Education. The study plans and syllabuses of individual subjects realized in tourism and recreation in the period of 2005–2015 were used in the research. Results and conclusions. Active sport tourism is a subject of study on the bachelor degree and the specialization course on the master degree.
Key words: active sport tourism, study course curriculum, Academy of Physical Education
Słowa kluczowe: turystyka aktywna, program studiów, akademia wychowania fizycznego
Tourist preferences in Polish Karkonosze Mts. as a basis of creating tourist product of the region
Background. The Karkonosze Mountains enjoy great popularity as they try to satisfy various preferences of tourists visiting this region. Identification of these preferences is helpful to improve the tourism product. A survey carried out directly on a trail is claimed to be the best way to know tourist preferences. Materials and methods. The aim of this study is to identify tourist preferences in the Karkonosze region. The questionnaire respondents were asked to fill out included questions about their motives and length of the visit, preferred tourist attractions, weaknesses of Karpacz and Szklarska Poręba, transportation within the region, quality of guide service, accommodation and gastronomic facilities. Results. The research gave rise to creation of a perfect tourism product for individual tourism in a summer season. Conclusion. It occurred that comprehensive residence services with Internet access are most preferred. A flexible and wide range of pastimes and transportation within the region also play a significant role.
Key words: tourist preferences, Karkonosze Mts., tourist product
Słowa kluczowe: preferencje turystów, motywy turystów, produkt turystyczny, Karkonosze
Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego
al. Ignacego Jana Paderewskiego 35