ISSN (online) 2544-1272
Natural law vs. extreme mountaineering feats
The paper gives moral evaluation of feats done by extreme athletes who participate voluntarily in life-threatening stunts or races. The evaluation of the rightness of such extreme feats was based on the first principles of natural law. The law of nature obliges everybody to preserve their lives and forbids acts against one’s own life (do not kill yourself). Extreme athletes differ from others in terms of the attitude to the ontological structure of existence: from negation and mockery of life in the case of nihilists to a praise of life in the case of athletes and goes even further in the case of Olympic athletes who embrace the pro-life civilization through their participation in the peace utopia. In this paper, the author justified the sporting premise for mountaineers to do extreme climbing. In the conclusion, the author admits that extreme feats of mountaineers is justified because these athletes, like Olympic ones, follow sports ethics and at the same time the moral value of existence. Although they consciously risk their lives, when they actually face death they do not give up and fight heroically to survive. This attitude is sufficient to evaluate the mountaineer’s performance which is on the verge of death as morally right.
Key words: natural law, morality, extreme sport, Himalayan mountaineering
Słowa kluczowe: prawo naturalne, moralność, ekstremalny konkurs, sport, himalaizm
Physical education as a subject of academic recognition
This article discusses the novel position of Andrzej Pawłucki in terms of science of physical culture. Author refers to the social systems of physical exercise (gymnastics) and, based on these system, theory and science in Europe and Poland in a historical context. The starting point for A. Pawłucki is the understanding of physical culture as a deliberate governance of activities integrated with other systems participating in culture, and hence sciences of physical culture are rooted in the culture of the social system and create its own system. Confronted with the current perception of science in this field, A. Pawłucki accounts for the origins of science of physical culture and deep recognition of their significant dimension. In this paper, author tries to formulate and indicate the main issues of the position adopted by A. Pawłucki.
Key words: Andrzej Pawłucki, science of physical culture, scientific recognition, social system
Słowa kluczowe: Andrzej Pawłucki, nauki o kulturze fizycznej, naukowe rozpoznanie, system społeczny
Madness and immortality – foundations of Plato’s cultural anthropology
In Plato’s philosophy sexual activity comes from an impulse given by Eros: the messenger between the Olympian gods and human beings. That activity is also a harbinger of aspiration for immortality – that is to leave a lasting mark of one’s own existence in human memory. One of possibilities is the transfer of knowledge about one’s own existence to one’s own descendants and future generations. Plato is of an opinion that inspiration, named madness, resulting inter alia from Eros’s influence (and, simultaneously, an aspiration for immortality) can be also realized in another way – that is, among others, thanks to artistic or artisan creativity, or eminent political, economic, military, sports or religious activity.
Key words: culture, Plato’s philosophy, madness, immorality
Słowa kluczowe: kultura, filozofia platońska, szaleństwo, nieśmiertelność
The body’s role in shaping consciousness – philosophical and scientific inspirations
Since time immemorial man has been trying to understand his origin and sense of being. He has been seeking to define himself and to find the right answer both through philosophical considerations and scientific inquiries and observations. If we ask what human consciousness is, how it happens that we possess it, how consciousness of our being and agency is formed in us, science will direct us towards neurobiological studies, whereas philosophy refers to its numerous representatives. One of the thinkers who, at the beginning of the 20th century, tried to answer the aforementioned questions, was Merleau-Ponty whose views are discussed in this paper.
Key words: consciousness, development of somato sensory system, Merleau-Ponty
Słowa kluczowe: świadomość, rozwój schematu ciała, Merleau-Ponty
The body in Yoga. Tradition and modernity
This article is an attempt to show one of the most important, in the author’s opinion, changes that took place in the cultural and historical development of yoga, namely the change of direction in thinking and perceiving the body in the yoga practice, being the transition from the model named as “off the body” (functioning in the pre-modern, traditional yoga) to the model named as “to the body” (functioning in the modern forms of yoga). Both models have been shown through the prism of three values that in today’s yoga practice (especially in the mass practice) are perceived through the prism of the body and through the body are realized. These values have been defined as: “healthy body”, “beautiful body” (aesthetically perfect) and “social body”. Description of both models has been supplemented with basic information about those processes which enabled the aforementioned transition to occur, changing the body-tool into the body-goal.
Key words: asana, body, aestheticization, modern yoga, identity, health
Słowa klucze: asana, ciało, estetyzacja, joga nowoczesna, tożsamość, zdrowie
Gilles Deleuze’s conception of mechanicism
Human body in Western philosophy has been always described as the matter opposed to the Reason. However, this scheme cannot be applied to modern French philosophy in which dialectics reason – body is comprehended as an act of violence and exclusion of the body. For Deleuze there is vital need to understand the human being as an entirety. It is possible only as a version of materialistic, psychoanalytic thought. Deleuze refuses therefore autonomy of subject and tries to connect the subject and his body with “social mechanisms”. Finally human’s body is understood only as a source of pure social functions, presented as a “Body without Organs”.
Key words: Deleuze, body, mechanicism, deterritorialization
Słowa kluczowe: Deleuze, ciało, maszynizm, deterytorializacja
The concepts explaining the importance of awareness of bodily sensations in the prevention and treatment of obesity
The paper examines three theoretical models that form the basis for programs designed for prevention and treatment of obesity. These models emphasize the importance of deepening sensitivity to bodily sensations. The first of them is the „intuitive eating”. The second one presented here is a model of „metabolic learning” based on the theory of „selfish brain.” The third approach includes a group of interventions based on the idea of mindfulness. Analysis of the three selected concepts serves to explain the importance of interceptive sensitivity for the normalization of the eating process, presentation of methods of work in this area and their average efficiency.
Key words: intuitive eating, metabolic learning, mindfulness, obesity, selfish brain
Słowa kluczowe: intuicyjne jedzenie, metaboliczne uczenie się, uważność, otyłość, samolubny mózg
Identity of persons with acquired disabilities
The self-perception of people with disabilities often differs from how they are perceived by others in the community. The roles of these persons and their relationships in the society are often defined by others in a completely different way (than the way they view themselves) by assigning a specific identity to them. Disability becomes a central category which defines the social identity of these people. Difference between the transactional and true identity of the person disrupts interaction and constitutes a space in which it is possible to stigmatize/ mark. In this context, a very important question appears regarding how and whether the person with acquired disabilities adapts to an expected social identity? Has the ego identity status been changed and if so, to what extent? To what extent is ego identity connected with the stigma and other scopes of the personal identity?
Key words: disability, identity, stigmatization, body consciousness
Słowa kluczowe: niepełnosprawność, tożsamość, stygmatyzacja, świadomość ciała
Tactile stimulation in improving the motor fitness of children, adolescents and adults
Studies on the role of the senses and their integration have focused mainly on visual awareness, which is rather surprising if we consider that touch is the first sense to develop. The results of recent studies underlined the importance of awareness of tactile information in human development. Having this in mind, the present study addresses the role of awareness of tactile stimulation in physical exercises to improve a psychomotor development of children with various psychomotor disorders. The outcomes of studies devoted to this subject suggest that the tactile stimulation in conjunction with physical exercises creates positive environment for compensation of the children’s deficits. That is why there is a strong need for implementation of tactile stimulation in physical exercises.
Key words: tactile stimulation, supporting development of methods
Słowa kluczowe: stymulacja taktylna, metody wspomagania rozwoju
Employment activity and mood disorders among physiotherapy graduates from the University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw
Background. The aim of the paper was to provide knowledge about socio-economic status and severity of mood disorders among 2012/2013 physiotherapy graduates from the University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw. Material and methods. The study analyzed 101 physiotherapy graduates (mean age 24.2). The research was carried out with the use of a diagnostic survey method. The self-made questionnaire examined the respondents’ employment and economic situation. In addition, the Beck Depression Inventory which assesses symptoms of depression demonstratively was used. Results. 75% of respondents were employed, 13% were unemployed, the others continued their education. One third of the employees were earning less than 10 PLN/h net, 26% of respondents indicated the option 10–15 PLN/h net, 20% of respondents had an income level above 16 PLN/h net. One fifth of graduates reported symptoms of depressed mood and mental health problems. Conclusions. A large number of respondents were economically active persons. On the other hand, unemployment was a huge problem whose rate is similar to the general unemployment rate in Poland.
Key words: employment, graduates in physiotherapy, Beck Depression Inventory, self-esteem
Słowa kluczowe: zatrudnienie, absolwenci fizjoterapii, skala depresji, poczucie własnej wartości
The implementation of health education in Subcarpathian schools after the introduction of the new core curriculum as viewed by PE teachers
Background. According to the new core curriculum, health education should be treated as a fundamental task and physical education classes should include health education issues. The assessment of health education position in schools after the introduction of the new core curriculum based on the opinion of PE teachers working in Subcarpatian schools. Material and methods. The material for the research was collected in the first half of 2014. The applied method was a self-designed survey questionnaire. The questionnaire respondents included physical education teachers from lower and higher secondary schools in the Subcarpatian Region. Results. In the respondents’ view, students are not very interested in health education. They give different opinions on physical education classes. Only the introductory or final part of the lesson is devoted to health education. Teachers expect support from the educational and medical sectors. Few teachers see the need to establish a school committee coordinating health education matters. Conclusions. After the introduction of the new core curriculum, the position of health education in schools unfortunately did not improve. Actually, it is a regulation in the core curriculum that is yet to be put into practice.
Key words: ccore curriculum, health education, PE teachers, PE classes
Słowa kluczowe: podstawa programowa, edukacja zdrowotna, nauczyciele WF, lekcje WF
Health behaviors high school unions students in Wroclaw
Background. Lifestyle has the biggest impact on human health. It is a set of everyday human behaviors, the standard responses and certain personality traits. Material and methods. The material includes survey data of 54 male students (aged 16) attending a vocational school in Wroclaw. The survey was conducted in April 2012. The self-made questionnaire adopted in the study was self-contained and consisted of questions relating to the boys’ lifestyle, participation in physical education lessons and extra-curricular activities, regular workouts, nutrition and ways of spending free time. Statistical analysis included calculation of: arithmetic mean, standard deviation, Spearman’s correlation and percentages, taking into account the analysis of selected sports. Results and conclusions. The vast majority of 16-year-old boys associated a healthy lifestyle with physical activity and healthy food. The majority of respondents see the need for physical activity. It is manifested by their regular participation in physical education lessons, and quite often, in extra-curricular activities.
Key words: lifestyle, health, physical activity, health behaviors, boys
Słowa kluczowe: styl życia, zdrowie, aktywność fizyczna, zachowania zdrowotne, chłopcy
Social background and some elements of studying unpopular degree courses
Background. The aim of the study was to look at the social composition of students studying unpopular degree courses and to verify whether their social characteristics affect their studyrelated situation. The questions arose in the context of the processes occurring in higher education in Poland in recent years: increasing accessibility of higher education and elimination of horizontal access barriers. Material and methods. A group of 412 students in master’s degree programs in physical education, tourism and recreation, and physiotherapy participated in the survey. Results. The results indicate that people coming from families of lower status tend to select these degree courses more often than others. The student community encompasses people from two socio-professional backgrounds: (i) business owners and (ii) employees in the service and trade sector. Social origin affects the subjects’ studying situation. Considering the aspects of satisfaction connected with studying and accepting their later role as professionals, physical education students have the most positive image of studies. Conclusions. In the social strata from which the students come, the need for higher education is acknowledged, and the families can provide money necessary for this purpose.
Key words: educational inequalities in higher education, attractiveness of degree courses, barriers of origin, studying situation
Słowa kluczowe: nierówności edukacyjne w szkołach wyższych, atrakcyjność kierunków studiów, bariery pochodzenia, sytuacja studiowania
Body image vs. physical activity of high school and university students
Background. Body image can be associated with doing sport and other physical activity. Moreover, both body image and physical activity are related with shaping the self-image. The aim of the study was to compare the relationships between the body image and physical activity in two groups of students: attending high school and university. Material and methods. The study sample consisted of 49 students from a high school in Szczecin and 60 students of the University of Szczecin. The body image was determined using the Body Esteem Scale developed by Franzoi and Shields and adapted to Polish by Lipowski and Lipowska. To measure the physical activity we used a self-made Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results. There are some correlations between body image and physical activity in the research sample. Some differences between students from high school and university also occurred. Conclusions. The process of shaping the body image proceeds gradually. The results of the study should be considered as an introduction to further research.
Key words: body image, physical activity, high school, university students
Słowa kluczowe: obraz ciała, aktywność fizyczna, uczniowie liceum, studenci
Physical activity of persons with visual impairment as a positive measure of their health
Background. Participation in physical culture is particularly important for the rehabilitation process of persons with impairment as it has beneficial effects on physical and mental health. The objective of the study was to investigate the level of physical activity of adults with visual impairment. Material and methods. A group of 70 persons (35 women and 35 men) aged 51–64 years with moderate visual impairment and holders of a certificate of visual impairment participated in the study. A method of diagnostic poll was used for the purposes of the investigation. The research tool was the survey based on the HHS (Health and human Services) Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults. Results. Physical activities taken up by women were mostly housework and brisk walks, whereas men preferred walks. The majority of subjects, both men and women, self-reported that they undertake physical activity in the form of recreation movement [exercises] twice a week for two hours and that this physical exercise is at a low or medium level. The majority of female respondents takes part in physical activity of particularly high intensity twice a week and the majority of men just once a week. Conclusions. Considering the research conducted by other authors on physical activity of persons with visual impairment and its relationship to health, it may be concluded that subjects with visual dysfunction are sufficiently physically active in order to maintain good health.
Key words: physical activity, visual impairment, health, adults
Słowa kluczowe: aktywność fizyczna, niepełnosprawnośc wzrokowa, zdrowie, dorośli
Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego
al. Ignacego Jana Paderewskiego 35