ISSN (online) 2544-1272
Forming medium-range theory in studies of physical education teachers
Article discusses the procedures for building the grounded theory (TG) against the rules accompanying qualitative data analysis (QDA). The paper focuses on the mechanisms of the emergence of concepts, categories, the use of continuous benchmarking, theoretical sampling, theoretical saturation and the status of engendered hypotheses. Reference was made to the difficulties in building a workshop of a qualitative researcher, especially memoing and writing metaphors as important elements for generating TG. The last part concerns the use of inductive capability in developing the concept of medium range – supporting the understanding of the routine of professional experiences of physical culture teachers.
Key words: grounded theory, defining concepts and categories, metaphor of professional career
Słowa klucze: badania jakościowe, teoria ugruntowana, definiowanie pojęć i kategorii, metafora drogi zawodowej
Physical exercise as cultural patterns in Poland over the centuries
On the basis of selected texts, the author is trying to trace and capture the process of formation of the social and cultural pattern of physical exercise in Poland over the centuries. Such a model in a limited form only appears in the interwar Poland (1918–1939). After WW2, in the Polish People’s Republic, the rank of physical culture and sport in the country assured its universality and folk character, which had positive impact on building social and cultural pattern of physical exercise. Political changes hampered further activity in this field. Currently, this model is being created due to the spontaneity and activity of communities. The starting point for discussion is the concept of culture itself as well as two books: “Nauki o kulturze fizycznej” (Physical Culture Sciences) by A. Pawłucki and “Powszechne dzieje wychowania fizycznego i sportu” (Universal History of Physical Education and Sport) by R. Wroczyński.
Key words: physical exercise, culture, cultural pattern, Poland
Słowa kluczowe: ćwiczenia fizyczne, kultura, wzór kulturowy, Polska
Body as a theme of mass culture narration and internal narration
Contemporary mass culture is often considered to be a proponent of bodily and sensual liberation. However, as a matter of fact – regarding its commercial character subordinated to the task of stimulating consumption – it is rather oriented to transmission of definite patterns of bodily behaviours and feelings to its recipients. That instrumentalising external narration of mass culture can be opposed by an individual with an internal narration based on listening to sensations coming from his/her own body and answering the questions: “What do I feel? What brings me pleasure? What brings me joy?”. An ability to create an internal narration is not, however, inborn and it must be learned. Its acquisition in an early stage of life requires interactions between a child and its social partners – mainly parents.
Key words: body in contemporary culture, narration and identity, bodily socialization
Słowa kluczowe: ciało we współczesnej kulturze, narracja a tożsamość, socjalizacja cielesna
An effect of women’s image in advertising on self-esteem and perception of appearance amongst adolescent girls
Background. Human self-esteem is being created along with development of self-consciousness and self-knowledge under the influence of anatomical, physiological, psychological and social factors. Psychological and social factors are opinions, criticism made by other people which one hears about oneself, also personal triumphs and failures and comparisons with role-models. Comparison concerns a lot of aspects of life including personal appearance. The aim of this paper was to learn how women’s image presented in TV commercials is seen by girls in late adolescence and to establish its effect on their self-esteem and their perception of others. Material and methods. A group of 256 school girls from Wrocław aged 16–18 years was analysed. The methods of diagnostic survey and survey techniques were used. Results. It was found that advertising has a major impact on the image of modern women’s and girls’ perception of themselves and other women. This was reflected in their decisions to change their appearance. Conclusions. The image of a woman created by advertisements affected the girls’ appreciation of their appearance, which, however, did not translate into their global self-esteem.
Key words: self-esteem, appearance, commercial, image of women, girls at the age of late adolescence
Słowa kluczowe: samoocena, wygląd, reklama, obraz kobiety, adolescencja
Body awareness in girls with anorexia
Background. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder consisting in weight loss caused intentionally by the patient. The condition mainly occurs in adolescent girls. Its core feature is body image disturbances which lead to psychopathological symptoms manifested as intrusive thoughts about weight gain. Material and methods. The aim of the study was to examine body image in the group of 17 girls suffering from anorexia nervosa treated in the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Wroclaw. The average age of the sample was 15 years. Body image was analyzed using the self-assessment Body-Esteem Scale (based on Franzoi and Shields, 1984) and a questionnaire (developed by the authors) concerning the patient’s subjective assessment of the size and shape of their body, feelings and thoughts in relation to their own body, satisfaction with their appearance and whether they had any authorities. Results. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. Most of the girls expressed a negative attitude to their own bodies and assessed the size of their silhouettes as much larger than they really are. Noted decreased satisfaction with the appearance of particular parts of the body such as the abdomen, buttocks, thighs while the respondents generally expressed a positive attitude to the appearance of their face. Conclusions. The study confirmed distorted body image in girls suffering from anorexia. The vast majority of respondents perceived their bodies bigger than they were, expressed a negative attitude to it and were not pleased with their body weight.
Key words: anorexia, body awareness, body image, body schema
Słowa kluczowe: anoreksja, świadomość ciała, obraz ciała, schemat ciała
The physical activity of overweight pregnant women
Background. American College of Sports Medicine and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommends moderate intensity exercise for 7 days a week. The duration of exercise should be minimum 30 minutes per day. Despite proven benefits and numerous recommendations of exercise during pregnancy, most women reduce their physical activity at the beginning of pregnancy. The aim of the study was to assess the physical activity of pregnant women by using the Yamax SW700 pedometer. It was assumed that somatic factors such as BM, BMI and age will differentiate the pregnant women in their physical activity. Material and methods. The observation was conducted on a sample of 39 pregnant women in the 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Results. The results show the low level of physical activity during pregnancy. In addition, the vast majority (97%) did not meet the requirements of the recommended number of steps per day. It was revealed that somatic factors (BM, BMI) and age did not determine pregnant women’s physical activity level. Conclusions. It can be assumed that the level of physical activity among pregnant women might be determined by a volitional factors.
Key words: pregnancy, physical activity, pedometers
Słowa kluczowe: ciąża, aktywność fizyczna, nadwaga
The organization of P.E. in upper secondary schools in Wrocław
Background. The aim of the study was to identify the organization of physical education in the new core curriculum. The research material consists of the professional qualifications of 32 physical education teachers, the sports infrastructure and the method of the physical education implementation were diagnosed. Material and methods. The primary research method was a diagnostic survey and survey technique. Moreover, a teacher personal questionnaire of physical culture and a questionnaire to assess working conditions for the implementation of school physical education were applied. To identify how to implement physical education classes in schools and how to offer a variety of classes for the students to choose from, a personal questionnaire (RZWF) was used. It was created independently on the basis of the Decree of the Minister of National Education of 23 December 2008 on the core curriculum and general education in particular types of schools. Results. The study which diagnosed the professional qualifications of the physical education teachers showed that all of them graduated from the University School of Physical Education, and the highest percentage of the teachers have been working for over 21 years. Half of the diagnosed teachers have a chartered teacher status. Half of the teachers have at least an instructor certificate in a single discipline. Among those teachers, most people have a coach or instructor licence to conduct classes in basketball, volleyball, swimming, soccer and downhill skiing. The study on the diagnosis of the ways of implementing physical education classes showed that five secondary schools implemented a traditional classroom-lesson system, and four schools – a mixed system (classes in the classroom-lesson system, and activities to be chosen by a student). Conclusions. The research has shown that in more than half of the diagnosed secondary schools in Wroclaw some new opportunities for the organization of physical education have been introduced.
Key words: physical education, qualifications, secondary schools
Słowa kluczowe: wychowanie fizyczne, kwalifikacje, liceum ogólnokształcące
Effects of material status on educational performance among physical education students gainfully employed
Background. The aim of the study was to present the quantitative and qualitative description of the phenomenon of students’ gainful employment and determine if the work affects their functioning in the college. Materials and methods. The research included 412 fulltime Master’s degree students from Józef Piłsudski Uniwersity of Physical Education. The self-designed questionnaire was used and the statistical analysis was performed. Results. The majority of respondents was not employed during the course of studies. Gainfully employed students were active both in the learned profession and in other areas. The most common reasons for taking gainful employment were: improvement of the financial situation, earning money for entertainment, acquiring new skills and experience. Conclusion. The socio-demographic situation does not affect the phenomenon of taking gainful employment. The field of study affects the employment. Gainful employment does not affect student’s functioning in the college.
Key words: student’s work, master’s degree, gainful employment, the volume and nature of the work
Słowa kluczowe: praca studentów, studia magisterskie, praca zarobkowa, objętość i charakter pracy
Effect of the situational factors on the frequency and duration of stoppages in football matches
Background. The aim of this paper was to present the effect of the situational factors on the frequency and duration of stoppages in football matches. Material and methods. The course of the seven matches held in the final phase of the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil was examined. The results of the observation were next subjected to statistical analysis. Results and conclusion. The outcomes of this study demonstrated that the frequency and duration of stoppages in football matches depended on the situational factors of the game. Fouls and scratches and throw-ins reduce the effective playing time the most as they cause stoppages most frequently. The longest average duration of stoppages is caused by such factors as other events, fouls and scratches. The 15-minute sequences of the matches vary significantly in respect of the number and duration of stoppages. In the last sequences of each half of the analyzed matches, the duration of stoppages was longer and the number of them was respectively higher.
Key words: football, situational factor, effective playing time
Słowa kluczowe: piłka nożna, czynnik sytuacyjny, efektywny czas gry
Evaluation of the classification system in sitting volleyball – National Polish players’ opinion
Background. Sitting volleyball is one of the fastest growing disciplines of sport for people with movement impairments. In contrast to other team games, sitting volleyball has no division into start classes. Players are divided into those with minimum disability – MD (one player with minimum disability may be on the court) and athletes with movement impairments – D. The aim of this study was to evaluate the medical classification system in sitting volleyball based on National Polish players’ opinion. Material and methods. Nineteen people (12 men, 7 women) were examined during a sport camp (24th–27th April 2014). A diagnostic survey method was performed (10 personal questions, 16 concern classification system in sitting volleyball). Respondents were asked about their opinions on the current classification system of athletes with disabilities in sitting volleyball and possibility of playing with able-bodied athletes. Results. The current classification system has been assessed as “good” by 47.4% of respondents. Most of the athletes (73.7%) opted for a change in the medical classification system to a functional one. Most of the respondents (63.2%) were opposed to playing able-bodied with disabled athletes. Conclusion. The results confirmed the need for changes in the classification system of disabled athletes in sitting volleyball. However these changes of classification system require further verification of the scientific research.
Key words: sitting volleyball, classification system, diagnostic survey
Słowa kluczowe: piłka siatkowa na siedząco, klasyfikacja, sondaż diagnostyczny
Modern information technologies in creating innovation in the tourist market
Information technology allows tourist market players to introduce innovative activities. The tourist market is vulnerable to both innovation and implementation of information technology in the processes of providing services and attending consumers. The purpose of the paper is to discuss the issues of innovation in the tourist market, and to point at some innovations of technological nature in the particular market structure elements, i.e. actors of the tourism industry (tourist enterprises), tourist destinations, consumers (e-tourists), and tourism policy institutions. The article refers to the theoretical issues of innovation in the service sector, the problems of innovation in the tourist market, as well as the the range of technologies used on the tourist market that enhance the innovativeness of individual market subjects.
Key words: innovation, information technology, tourist market, e-tourist
Słowa kluczowe: innowacje, technologie informacyjne, rynek turystyczny, e-turysta
E-marketing in the practice of tourist regions in Poland
Background. The paper contains a review of contemporary e-marketing forms applied by the Destination Management Organizations; their classification was also performed. Material and methods. In the empirical part, various activities of Destination Management Organizations in Poland were described in terms of e-marketing (the usage of the Internet: Web 1.0, Web 2.0, and mobile applications). Best practices in this field were identified, too. A benchmarking analysis was applied. Results and conclusions. The study allowed to point out the Polish tourist regions where e-marketing activities were conducted almost perfectly. Several recommendations were presented to improve the effectiveness of e-marketing strategies in the regions.
Key words: e-marketing, tourist regions in Poland, benchmarking, DMO
Słowa kluczowe: e-marketing, regiony turystyczne Polski, benchmarking, regionalne organizacje turystyczne
The perceived quality of services and the post-purchase behaviour on the tourism market
Background. Word of mouth (WOM) has been acknowledged for many years as a factor of major influence on what people know, feel and do. Currently, the word of mouth effect is especially important in the tourism industry, whose intangible products are difficult to evaluate prior to their consumption. The aim of the research was to examine the relationship between the perceived service quality and the respondents’ willingness to recommend the services to others (word of mouth effect). Material and methods. The hypothesis was tested empirically among a sample of 221 students who participated in family vacation in the previous year. The Spearman correlation was established to explore the strength of the relationship between the perceived service quality and the WOM effect. Results. The study supported the hypothesis that the perceived service quality had a positive influence on the word of mouth effect. Conclusions. The perceived quality of services should be regarded as an important determinant of customers’ post-purchase behaviour.
Key words: word of mouth, consumer behaviour, perceived service quality
Słowa kluczowe: efekt word of mouth, zachowania konsumentów, postrzegana jakość usług
Medical tourism – the essence, scope, and consequences of its development
The constant global socio-economic development and the process of population aging in Western countries result in more and more people travelling abroad in order to improve their health. Health tourism is developing, which, apart from spa tourism or wellness tourism, includes also medical tourism. However, a problem arises whether medical tourism is a form of tourism constituting a natural and positive consequence of social processes or rather a negative phenomenon. The purpose of the article is an attempt to answer this question. The paper defines medical tourism and presents an analysis of the phenomenon itself, factors affecting its popularisation, people who participate in it, and the positive and negative consequences of its development. The effects of medical tourism development can be divided into macroeconomic ones, those related to the countries of tourists emission and reception, microeconomic ones, i.e. referring to companies (both tourist companies and medical service providers), and the effects on people who practice this type of tourism. The publication is an overview; mainly foreign literature was included.
Key words: medical tourism, tourism market
Słowa kluczowe: turystyka medyczna, rynek turystyczny
Tourist innovations in selected spa municipalities in the Podkarpackie province
This paper presents the essence of innovation in tourism as one of the elements that build a competitive advantage in this market. The opportunities and problems or threats related to the introduction of innovative products in spa municipalities are also shown. A research on innovation in tourism in the area of two spa municipalities – Iwonicz-Zdrój and Rymanów – was carried out. The main objective was to obtain information on innovative activities introduced in the study area over the past five years. The work results are part of a project aiming to identify innovative solutions in South-Eastern Poland resorts, and to evaluate the innovative municipalities perception by tourists, patients, and local entities.
Key words: tourism innovations, spa municipalities, the Podkarpackie province
Słowa kluczowe: innowacje turystyczne, gminy uzdrowiskowe, województwo podkarpackie
Pharmaceutical tourism development prospects in the region of Southern Poland
Background. The number of foreign patients in pharmacies is relatively on the increase, which contributes to the development of medical tourism, especially of one of its categories – pharmaceutical tourism. This requires an estimation of the foreign patients segment, determination of the sociodemographic profile of the ‘pharmaceutical tourist’, identification of the tourist’s purchase-related behaviour, and indication of the prospects for the pharmaceutical tourism development. Materials and methods. The research concerned a randomtarget group of 167 pharmacies operating in the region of Southern Poland. An own survey was applied. Results. In the years 2012–2014, the number of foreign patients using the services of the pharmacies rose by over 13 500. These were mainly male patients, aged 31–40 (30.4%), coming from Great Britain (18.8%), Germany (16.3%), Russia (10.5%), and the Czech Republic (10.3%). Most of them arrived in winter. Over-the-counter drugs are a popular purchase (68%) and a patient’s average expense does not exceed PLN 250.00 (46%). Using hard arguments, 49.1% of the surveyed pharmacies representatives express no optimism about the development of medical tourism. Conclusions. The results of the research indicate that there is an urgent need to make diverse interventions on the market of medical tourism, including pharmaceutical tourism.
Key words: medical tourism, pharmaceutical tourism, foreign patient, tourist, pharmacy
Słowa kluczowe: turystyka medyczna, turystyka farmaceutyczna, pacjent zagraniczny, turysta, apteka
Profit maximisation strategy as a reason for choosing hotel location in South-Western Poland
Background. The location and service program are the most important factors which determine the business success of a hotel. The aim of the study was to identify the most important factors influencing the location decisions with reference to new hotels, depending on the assumed strategy of profit maximisation. Material and methods. In the study, two main research methods were applied: deduction and diagnostic survey (in-depth interview), carried out among the owners or managers of 24 hotels created in 2000–2009 in the provinces of Lower Silesia, Opole, and Silesia. Results. It was shown that the strategy of maximising profits had an influence on location factors considered in the process of selecting new hotel locations. Slightly different factors were taken into account by entrepreneurs pursuing a strategy of minimising costs and by those maximising revenues. Conclusions. A further, in-depth research on the issue of hotel location reasons should be performed.
Key words: profit, general location, location factors, hotels
Słowa kluczowe: zysk, lokalizacja ogólna, czynniki lokalizacji, hotele
Innovations in intergenerational tourism in the light of the Polish law and the EU law
The purpose of this article is to research various kinds of innovations in intergenerational tourism in the light of the Polish law and the EU law. The author is making an attempt to outline the scope of ‘intergenerational tourism’. At the same time, he is suggesting a modified version of the classical division of generations in Poland over the last scores of years. Discussed are the innovations applied by tourist entrepreneurs to encourage intergenerational tourism development, as well as the kind of innovations that should be considered as vital for promoting intergenerational tourism in the future. Analysed were the acts of the Polish law and the EU law regarding tourism either directly or indirectly, in search for such regulations that would in any way contribute to the promotion of intergenerational tourism.
Key words: innovations, intergenerational tourism, Polish law, EU law
Słowa kluczowe: innowacje, turystyka międzypokoleniowa, prawo polskie, prawo UE
Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego
al. Ignacego Jana Paderewskiego 35