ISSN (online) 2544-1272
Przedmiotem rozważań w eseju z dziedziny socjologii i filozofii kultury fizycznej jest ascetyzm cielesności. Ascetyzm oznacza relację, czyli odniesienie czynności do jej podmiotu; po nieważ jest to odniesienie podmiotu do niego samego, wektor czynności ascezy jest samozwrotny. Rola społeczna ascety obejmuje wszystkie czynności i stosunki zawiązywane w grupie kulturowej gimnazjonu – centrum organizacyjnym systemu społecznego kultury fizycznej. Ascetyzm cielesności poprzedza logicznie każdą relację społeczną. W skali makro tworzy strukturę kultury fizycznej, także strukturę zdrowia publicznego, która tkwi poten cjalnie w strukturze danego społeczeństwa jako całości. W zależności od modelu przyczynowo-ideowego społeczeństwa struktura kultury cielesnej może być aktualizowana lub likwidowana, przenoszona w stan potencjalności. Zastosowana do analizy rzeczywistości społecznej zasada przyczynowości odgórnej pozwala zrozumieć, dlaczego w strukturze państwa liberalno-demokratycznego nie występuje struktura ascetyzmu cielesności. Weryfikowana hipoteza wyjaśnia, że ascetyzm cielesności zostaje wyłączony za przyczyną ideologa z sieci zdrowia publicznego w strukturze liberalnej kratokracji, w której racją jest dobro władzy dla niej samej. W strukturze społeczeństwa narodowego sieć ascetyzmu cielesności zostaje podniesiona do rangi dobra wspólnotowego. Mimo zablokowania łączności sieci ascetyzmu cielesności ze struktura społeczną, gimnazjony akademickie przetrwały stan zapaści. Każdy z nich usprawiedliwiał się niezależnie bezideową racją rynku cielesnych usług, racją ważną dla prywatnej sieci fitness, ale rozczarowującą oczekiwania tej frakcji społeczności uczo nych, która aspiruje do spełniania się w zadaniach publicznych, istotnych dla wspólności kulturowej narodu. Aktualizacja sieci ascetyzmu cielesności, ulokowanej za przy czyną władzy w strukturze zdrowia publicznego, może dokonać się przy udziale filozofa i pedagoga kultury fizycznej.
THE PARADIGMS OF PHYSICAL CULTURE AND THE SOCIAL ROLES IN THE ETHNIC GROUPS OF BALKANS: BOSNIAKS, CROATIANS, MONTENEGRINS
Background and material. The purpose of the thesis was to explore the relationships between the social roles and the paradigms of physical culture of the different societies within the Balkans: Bosniaks, Croatians and Montenegrins for whom their ethnic identity, religious tradition, family traditions, work ethic and the political process stem from the military conflict within this part of land. Methods. In exploring the relation between the paradigm of physical culture of asceticism and the social role of an actor I used the theoretical concepts described by Pawlucki in „Nauki o kulturze fizycznej” (2013, 2015) and the typology of physical types by Znaniecki from „Socjologia Wychowania” (1930), where the author describes the relationships between creating physical types and social roles. I applied qualitative research and created hypothetico-deductive model. Results and conclusion. There is a relationship between creating physical types and social roles. Predictions of the hypothesis have been corroborated by observable data.
INFLUENCE OF CHINESE MARTIAL ARTS IN THE TECHNIQUE OF THE IDOKAN YOSHIN-RYU SCHOOL
In the theoretical frames of anthropology of martial arts and the humanistic theory of martial arts, I analysed, as a scientific problem, the impact of Chinese elements – ideological and technical – in the curriculum of Idokan Yoshin-ryu in the Idokan Poland Association (IPA). Two qualitative methods were used: the content analysis of the literature and a broad discourse, and the method of long-term participant observation. Three levels of influence of Chinese martial arts in the Idokan Yoshin-ryu Budo programme were distinguished: 1) in terms of symbolism and values; 2) strategies and tactics; 3) used techniques and training methods. This influence is direct or indirect. Indirect, when a martial art (like karate or in part also jujutsu) has its roots in China. Direct, when the masters deliberately introduce Chinese elements into the curriculum of individual disciplines. Evolution of martial arts leads to mixing techniques, in particular, the adoption of more effective solutions. An example is the system Idokan Yoshin-ryu. Elements of Chinese origin are found here in techniques, as well as in concepts and principles.
SELF-ESTEEM AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIORS IN CHILDREN AGED 10–12 PRACTICING RECREATIONAL MARTIAL ARTS
Background. The purpose of the study was to analyze aggressive behaviors and self-esteem in children aged 10–12 practicing recreational martial arts. Material and methods. Children aged 10–12 who attend martial arts classes as well as children who do not attend such classes were tested. A questionnaire was used as the diagnostic method. Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire according to Amity Institute (2005) and Morris Rosenberg’s selfesteem scale were used. Results. It was found that children aged 10–12 who practice recreational martial arts demonstrate statistically significantly lower level of hostility and significantly higher self-esteem than their non-practicing peers. Stronger effects of martial arts classes were observed in girls. In children practicing martial arts, there was also moderate correlation between the level of self-esteem and physical as well as verbal aggression and the general level of aggression. Average negative correlation between positive self-esteem and anger or hostility was found in boys. Conclusions. The study can contribute to the development of pedagogy and psychology. It can be used by physical education teachers, coaches and instructors conducting recreational martial arts classes.
POLIHYMNIA IN AN OFFSIDE POSITION. BETWEEN THE WORLDS OF MUSIC AND FOOTBALL
The aim of this research paper is: first, to explore the relations between music and football, second, to discuss football as a cultural phenomenon which plays a crucial role in the process of social communication. The thesis of the article is based on the belief that sport games may be considered a cultural and artistic show, during which behavioral patterns, as increasingly intensified due to emotions, come to light. I am especially interested in the type of music used to cheer the players, the one used as a tool of a political manifesto or the one which plays a role of special sporting event anthem. In this paper I attempt to analyze different music elements in football, referring to, among others, the theories of John MacAloon, Richard Schechner, Jean Alter, Tomasz Sahaj and Jerzy Kosiewicz.
HOSTELS FOR BACKPACKERS. AN EXAMPLE OF AUSTRALIAN ACCOMMODATION SERVICE
Background. For many years, the tourism industry is trying to keep up with the changing expectations of its customers. In the last quarter of the 20th century there was an increased interest in individual low-cost journeys, which meant an increased demand for cheap accommodation. Thus, especially in Asia and Australia, a vast variety of accommodation facilities were created to meet the needs of a new type of tourist – a backpacker. Material and methods. This article describes an synchronous and diachronic view of the innovative changes made to the former tourist dormitory-type, ways of adapting the market expectations of hotel services to the changing needs of the consumer segment. Conclusions. Implemented innovations primarily helped to develop the competitiveness of the services and strengthen the local economy, associated with backpackers destination.
SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION AND QUALITY OF THE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE PARTNER AMONG WOMAN AFTER MASTECTOMY
Background. The treatment of breast cancer is associated with many adverse effects. Mainly discussed are: depression, changes in social roles and in sexual life. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of surgery on the partner and sexual relationships between women after mastectomy and their partners. Material and methods. The study involved 17 women belonging to the Amazonki Club in Legnica and Oława. Carried out once, unlimited time survey, which uses the Marital Bond Scale, Questionnaire ISS-K, Beck Depression Inventory and author’s socio-demographic questionnaire. Results. All patients had mood disorders. A statistically significant difference was found between the results of the Marital Bond Scale and ISS-K Scale before and after mastectomy. Conclusions. Studies have shown a significant deterioration of the relations after mastectomy, and correlation between the partner and sexual relations. There was no association between lowered mood and the results of these scales.
PRACTICAL PE TEACHER TRAINING DURING SCHOOL PLACEMENTS – POLAND’S EXPERIENCE VS. OTHER COUNTRIES
Background. Practical PE teacher training during school placements is an important part of the process of education of physical education students and have a large impact on their preparation for the profession and the quality of teacher’s work. The quality of students’ practical teacher training is reflected in the standard of PE classes run at school and children’s participation in these classes. Therefore, many studies deal with this topic. There are also projects which aim to improve the organization of students’ teacher training in physical education. This paper presents the main weaknesses and challenges of practical school placement systems and a variety of solutions already implemented in Poland and other countries in Europe and the United States. Material and methods. In this article the computer-based literature search was conducted in the following databases: EBSCOHost, PubMed, Science Direct, ScienceDirect On Line. Also manual search of all available issues of pertinent journals was carried out. results. The findings suggest that there is too little involvement of university teachers in the practical school placements. Conclusions. There is the need to improve co operation between university teachers and the physical education teachers during physical education teacher training.
INTEREST IN ACTIVITY MOVEMENTS OF ABLE-BODIED AND DISABLED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
Background. Full participation of persons with disabilities in all forms of the teaching process, in particular in sport and recreational activities, allow them to improve motor skills and stimulate physical development. In pursuing the objectives of physical education, it is important to diagnose students’ interest in physical activity. Satisfying the students’ interests in the process of physical education has a big impact on their awareness and involvement in PE lessons. Material and methods. The aim of this study was to diagnose the interests in physical activity of able-bodied pupils and those with disabilities attending the fourth grade of primary school integration classes. The study was conducted in the years 2007–2012 and diagnosed 301 students. The study used a diagnostic survey method, using a questionnaire and a statistical method Pearson’s chi-square test. Conclusions. Analyzing the results of the survey, we found no significant differences in the preferences between the disabled and the able-bodied each year. No significant changes in the preferences for the disabled and able-bodied were noticed over 5 years of research.
Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego
al. Ignacego Jana Paderewskiego 35